Russia (Russian Federation)
The official language Russian
The major cities Moscow, St.-Petersburg, Novosibirsk,
Perm , Yekaterinburg, Nizhni Novgorod, Samara, Kazan, Omsk, Chelyabinsk, Ufa, Rostov-on-Don, Volgograd, Krasnoyarsk.
Form of government Presidential-parliamentary republic
Territory 17 098 246 km²
Population 143 030 106 people
Currency Russian ruble
Internet-domen .ru, .рф
Telephone code +7
Time zone UTC +3…+12, no +5
Russia (Russian Federation) is located in Northern hemisphere and occupies a part of Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. Russia bounds with utmost number of states —18 (the biggest figure). On land her neighbors are Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia, North Korea, Azerbaijan, South Korea, South Ossetia, Georgia, Abkhazia, Ukraine, Belorussia, Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Finland and Norway. Besides Russia holds borders on the sea— with USA and Japan.
Russia washing by the Pacific and Arctic Oceans Seas, as well as Black, Azov Sea, Baltic and Caspian Seas (that actually considered to be a lake). Country is full of rivers — rivers are more than 2,8 mln. The most deep among are: Volgaа, Yenisei, Lena, Ob and Amur. The largest Russian lakes (besides Caspian Sea) — Baikal, Lake Ladoga, Lake Onega and Taimyr.
The territory of Russia lies up in four climatic zones: arctic, subarctic, moderate and subtropical. However the major part of the country is located in moderate zone. The huge space of Russia and the terrain specifications conditioned the great diverse of climate.
In European country part from the north to south one another changed such natural zones as: arctic deserts, cold desert, forest tundra, taiga, mixed wood, forest steppes, steppes and semi-deserts. On East the climate seems to be more continental, the number of natural zones boil down.
Russia extremely full of forests—forests occupy the space over 40 % out of the total square. In the territory of Russia exist the fifth part of all world forests and 50% of world pine-woods reserves. As well as the fauna of Russia is very various— tigers, leopards, white bears, ice-swimmers reside there. In Russia are placed 35 national parks and 84 reservations.
Russia — is one of the best countries in terms of water supply worldwide. Country enjoys the largest fresh water capacity worldwide. Surface waters occupy 12,4 % of Russian area, at that 84 % of surface waters concentrated on east to Urals; many of high density areas in European part of Russia feel lack of water resources. In water utilization structure the industrial need are prevailed.
Russia holds the largest explored reserves of natural gas, as well as considered to be the top manufacture of natural gas. Besides, Russia shares top-second position in terms of produced oil, and in terms of its export volume is the second best. The largest deposit of coal discovered in Komi republic as well as in Eastern Siberia and in Far East. Russia is full of iron ore, nickel, tin metal, gold, diamonds, platinum, lead, zinc. Many of that resources are placed in Siberia, where are long distances, poor occupancy, hard climate and eternal frost make sizable difficulties for the cost-effective extraction and stock transportation to processing and consumption spots.
Russia is very rich with both– natural, historical and cultural objects. 23 of them were registered in UNESCO List: Moscow Kremlin, Red Square, the historical canter in St. Petersburg, churches in Kiji, historical monuments in Nijni Novgorod, natural forests in Komi Republic, Baikal Lake, Fortress Narin-Kala in Derbent as well as others.
The population of Russia is over 143 mln. people. Here reside over 200 ethnic groups. Around 80% of inhabitants — Russian, as well as here are Tartars, Ukrainians, Bashkir, Chuvash, the Chechens, Armenians, the Byelorussians and others.
Russian Federation subdivides into 83 administrative-sub-area units, 46 of them are provinces, 21 — republics, 9 — territories, 2 —Federal importance cities, 4 — autonomous regions and 1 — autonomous territory.